The Adolescent Attachment Anxiety & Avoidance Inventory
The Adolescent Attachment Anxiety & Avoidance Inventory (AAAAI previously APAI; Moretti & Obsuth, 2009) is a 36-item measure of adolescent-parent attachment adapted from Brennan, Clark, and Shaver’s (1996, 1998) Experiences in Close Relationships (ECR) scale to assess adolescents’ relationships with their parents or primary caregivers. Each statement is scored on a 7-point scale ranging from 1 “Strongly Disagree” to 7 “Strongly Agree”.
Consistent with the ECR and other self-report measures of attachment, two super-ordinate factors tapping attachment anxiety and attachment avoidance have been confirmed (Steiger, 2003, 2008). The measure possesses strong psychometric properties; the factor structure and convergent validity of the AAAAI have been supported in previous research (Moretti & Obsuth, 2009; Moretti et al., 2015; Steiger, 2003, 2008; Steiger & Moretti, 2005; Steiger, Moretti, & Obsuth, 2009).
Click below for:
AAAAI Parent Version
AAAAI Youth Version
AAAAI Scoring and Subscales
Please note this measure was previously called the APAI but is now the AAAAI
Barone, L., Carone, N., Costantino, A., Genschow, J., Merelli, S., Milone, A., Polidori, L., Ruglioni, L., & Moretti, M. M. (2021). Effect of a parenting intervention on decreasing adolescents’ behavioral problems via reduction in attachment insecurity: A longitudinal, multicenter, randomized controlled trial. Journal of Adolescence, 91, 82–96.
Craig, S. G., Hernandez, C. S., Moretti, M. M., & Pepler, D. J. (2020). The mediational effect of affect dysregulation on the association between attachment to parents and oppositional defiant disorder symptoms in adolescents. Child Psychiatry & Human Development, 1-11.
Goulter, N., Moretti, M. M., Del Casal, J. M., & Dietterle, P. (2019). Attachment insecurity accounts for the relationship between maternal and paternal maltreatment and adolescent health. Child Abuse & Neglect, 96, 104090.
Pasalich, D. S., Moretti, M. M., Hassall, A., Curcio, A. (2021). Pilot randomized controlled trial of an attachment- and trauma-focused intervention for kinship caregivers. Child Abuse & Neglect, 120, 1-13.
Moretti, M.M., Obsuth, I., Craig, S.G., & Bartolo, T. (2015). An attachment-based intervention for parents of adolescents at risk: Mechanisms of change. Attachment and Human Development, 18, 1-17 Click here
Moretti, M., & Obsuth, I. (2009). Effectiveness of an attachment-focused manualized intervention for parents of teens at risk for aggressive behaviour: The Connect Program. Journal of Adolescence, 32(6), 1347-1357. Click here
Steiger, A., Moretti, M. M., & Obsuth, I. (2009, March). An examination of complex interactions between parenting and attachment in the prediction of adolescent externalizing behavior. Paper presented at the biennial meeting of the Society for Research in Child Development, Denver, CO.
Steiger, A. (2008). Parenting and Attachment: An Examination of Mediation and Moderation in the Prediction of Adolescent Psychopathology.(Unpublished doctoral dissertation). Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, BC, Canada Click here.
Steiger, A. R., & Moretti, M. M. (2005, June). Convergent and discriminant validity of the comprehensive adolescent-parent attachment inventory. Poster presented at the annual meeting of the Canadian Psychological Association, Montreal.
Steiger, A. (2003). Preliminary Validation of the Comprehensive adolescent-parent attachment inventory. (Unpublished master’s thesis). Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, BC, Canada Click here.
Articles Using this Measure:
Konishi, C., & Hymel, S. (2014). An attachment perspective on anger among adolescents. Merrill‐Palmer Quarterly, 60(1), 53-79.
Wong, T. K., Konishi, C., & Cho, S. B. (2019). Paternal and Maternal Attachment: A Multifaceted Perspective on Adolescents’ Friendship. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 1-10.